n. In botany, a part of the body of a plant which, typically, grows downward into the soil, fixes the plant, and absorbs nutriment.n. Specifically, an esculent root, as a beet or a carrot.n. That which resembles a root in shape, position, or function; that from which anything springs.n. Hence— The bottom or lower part of anything; foundation.n. The origin or cause of anything; source.n. The basis of anything; ground; support.n. In philology, an elementary notional syllable; that part of a word which conveys its essential meaning, as distinguished from the formative parts by which this meaning is modified; an element in a language, whether arrived at by analysis of words or existing uncombined, in which no formative element is demonstrable: thus, true may be regarded as the root of un-tru-th-ful-ness.n. The first ancestor; an early progenitor.n. In mathematics: The root of any quantity is such a quantity as, when multiplied into itself a certain number of times, will exactly produce that quantity. Thus, 2 is a root of 4, because when multiplied into itself it exactly produces 4. Power and root are correlative terms: the power is named from the number of the factors employed in the multiplication, and the root is named from the power. Thus, if a quantity be multiplied once by itself, the product is called the second power, or square, and the quantity itself the square root, or second root of the product; if the quantity be multiplied twice by itself, we obtain the third power, or cube, and the quantity is the cube root or third root; and so on. The character marking a root is √ (a modification of r for radix, which has been used probably since the middle of the sixteenth century), and the particular root is indicated by placing above the sign the figure which expresses the number of the root, which figure is called the index of the root. Thus, √16 indicates the fourth root of 16 (that is, 2), and √4 the square root of 4 (that is, 2)—the index in the case of the square root being usually omitted. The same is the case with algebraic quantities, as √ (a + 3ab + 3ab + b) = a + b. See power, index, involution, evolution. The root of an equation is a quantity which, substituted for the unknown quantity, satisfies the equation: thus, 2 + √2 is a root of the equation x—5x + 6x—2 = 0; for the sum of which is 0. Another root of the same equation is obviously 1; and the third root will be found to be 2—√2.n. In music: With reference to a compound tone or a series of harmonics, the fundamental, generator, or ground tone. With reference to a chord, the fundamental tone—that is, the tone from whose harmonics the tones of the chord are selected, or the tone on which they are conceived to be built up. Theorists are not agreed as to what constitutes a root of a chord, or whether a chord may have two roots; and in many cases the term is used merely to designate the lowest tone of a chord when arranged in its simplest or normal position.n. In chronology, the earliest time at which an event can take place, as a movable feast; also, the time at which any progressive change begins.n. In astrology, the state of things at the beginning of any time; particularly, the figure of the heavens at the instant of birth, specifically called the root of nativity, a term also applied to the horoscope, or ascendant. Chaucer, in the passage below, has in mind the introduction to Zahel's treatise on Elections, where it is stated that elections of fortunate times for undertakings are not much to be depended upon, except in the case of kings, who have their roots of nativity (that is, in their case there is no doubt as to the precise aspect of the heavens at the moment of birth), which roots strengthen the inferences to be drawn, especially (at least so Chaucer understands the words) in the case of a journey. When the horoscope of birth was not known, astrologers were accustomed to determine elections chiefly by the place and phase of the moon, whose influence was, however, considered debile. It appears that in the case of the lady of the story, the moon was impedited in the root of nativity (see Almansor, Prop. 35: “Cum in radice nativitatis impedietur luna,” etc.), and Mars, a planet most unfavorable to journeys, was at azir, or lord of the ascendant, at her birth, and was in the fourth, or darkest, house; so that the omens of the journey were as gloomy as they well could be.n. In hydraulic engineering, the end of a weir or dam where it is joined to the natural bank.n. In horticulture, a growing plant with its root; also, a tuber or bulb.n. Gross amount; sum total.n. In English history, the extremists of the Parliamentary party who about 1641 favored the overthrow of Episcopacy; also, the policy of these extremists.n. To become fixed; become established.n. (See also bloodroot, bowman's-root, cancer-root, colic-root, musk-root, orris-root, rattlesnake-root, and snakeroot.)To fix the root; strike root; enter the earth, as roots.To be firmly fixed; be established.To fix by the root or as if by roots; plant and fix deep in the earth: as, a tree roots itself; a deeply rooted tree.To plant deeply; impress deeply and durably: used chiefly in the past participle.To dig or burrow in with the snout; turn up with the snout, as a swine.To tear up or out as if by rooting; eradicate; extirpate; remove or destroy utterly; exterminate: generally with up, out, or away.To turn up the earth with the snout, as swine.To push with the snout.n. A form of rut.A dialectal form of rot.n. In mech., the part of a gear-tooth where it joins the rim of the wheel; the base of a tooth.n. The sweet-flag.To work hard for the success of some person or thing: as, to root for one's party (at an election); specifically, in base-ball, etc., to exert oneself for the success of one's side, usually by uproarious applause intended partly to disconcert the other side.